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高考英语家教大纲规定的24个语法梳理(八)

发布时间: 2020-07-18  分类: 浏览次数:6698次

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3500单词早自习主题晨背





★ 基数词

表示数量的词叫基数词。1-12的基数词是独立单词;13-19的基数词都是以-teen结尾的,要注意thirteen,fifteen,eighteen的拼法稍有不同;20-90的十位数,以后缀-ty结尾,要注音twenty,thirty,fifty,eighty的特殊点。如下表:


1
基数词的读法

⒈ 三位数的读法:第一个数字+hundred +and+后面的一位或两位数字。
如:107→one hundred and seven;765→seven hundred and sixty-five

⒉ 1,000以上的数的读法:先从后向前数,每三位数加一个逗号,第一个逗号前的数字用thousand(千),第二个逗号前的数字用million(百万),用“几十thousand“表示“几万",以“几百thousand"表示"几十万”,用“几十million"表示“几千万",用“几百million"表示"几亿"。
如:13,789,653→thirteen million seven hundred and eighty-nine thousand six hundred and fifty-three

2
数词的复数形式

⒈ 表示几十岁时。
如“二十多岁”说twenties,表示的是20岁到29岁。依次类推,thirties 表示“三十几岁",forties 表示四十几岁”,但十几岁”不可说tens,而要说teens,指13岁至19岁。
如:He died in his thirties.
She is in her teens.

⒉ 表示几十年代时。
如:“二十世纪八十年代”写成1980s或1980s,均读作 nineteen eighties,指的是1980至1989年这十年间,需注意的是,年代用文字表示时则不可用-s形式。
如:Great changes took place in the l970s.
History has entered the eighties.

⒊ 表示不确定数目时。
这时要在million,thousand,hundred 等词后加上-s并与of连用,表示大约多至“数以……计",但millions of等前不能再加基数词,却可加some,several等表示不确定数目的修饰语。
如:Millions of other stars are even bigger and brighter than the sun.
Some hundreds of new buildings have been put up here this year.

⒋ 在分数中,当基数词(表示分子)大于one时,序数词(表示分母)要用复数,两者之间用不用连字符号均可。如:Two thirds of the teachers in our school are women.
She has spent four-fifths of her money.

⒌ 当基数词用作可数名词或用于某些固定词组中时,也要用复数。
如:How many sevens are there in forty-nine?
They arrived by twos and three她们三三两两的来了。

3
数词和名词单数一起作定语,中间用连字符连接
如:a seven-year-old girl 一个七岁的女孩
a two-thousand-word article一篇2千字的文章

4
基数词和序数词的顺序问题
当基数词和序数词同时修饰一个名词时,序数词一般放在基数词前;但如果序数词充当描绘性修饰时,则放在基数词后。
如:He is one of the first five students.他是前五名的学生之一。







★ 序数词

表示数目顺序的词叫序数词。序数词的构成规则,如下表:


1
序数词前不用定冠词的情况

⒈ 表示顺序的语气很弱,具有“又一”“再一”的意思时,其前要用不定冠词,不用定冠词。
如:He cast the net a second time.
A third bullet passed.

⒉ 序数词前己有指示代词、物主代词、名词所有格或every时,不用定冠词。
如:He made his frist set in an old box.

⒊ 在表示分数的序数词前不用定冠词。
如:From then on Bashi tourer three-fourths of Beijng.
Two-thirds of the area is covered by trees.

⒋ 数词与名词构成复合名词时,不用定冠词。
如:There is a first-class hotel over there.
He went toa second-hand bookshop.

⒌ 在一些由序数词构成的固定词组里不用定冠词。
如:at first 
first of all 
from first to last

2
数词的功能

⒈ 表小数、分数和百分数
① 小数点读作 point,零读zero或nought。小数点后的数字按个位基数词依次读出。
如:3.4→three point four
0.2→zero(nought)point two
0.03→zero point zerothree
3.458→three point four five eight
② 百分数由基数词后直接加percent(per cent构成。
如:20%→20 percent
③ 分数由基数词(分子)和序数词(分母)合成。分子大于1时,表分母的序数词要用复数形式。
如:1/3-→one/a third
2/3→two thirds
但1/2一般用a/one half;
1/4用a/one quarter或one fourth。
④ 表示几分之几(或百分之几)的人或物时,须在分数(或百分数)和人或物间加of。若充当主语,谓语动词的数须与of后的名词的数保持一致。
如:One third of the students are girls.1的学生是女生。
Sixty percent of her income was spent on cloths收入的60%在了服装上。
但当表示人口的几分之几(或百分之几)作主语时,谓语动词常用复数形式。
如:The population in China is very large,and eighty percent of it are far mers.
中国的人口众多,其中80%农民。

⒉ 表加减乘除
① 加法的表达法
如表达“几加几是多少",可用“What/How much is+基数词+and/pus+基数词?";如表达几加几等于几”,可用“基数词+and+基数词+is+基数词"。
如:What/How much is seven and eight?7加8是多少?
Seven and eight is fifiteen.7加8等于15。
② 减法的表达法
如表达“几减几是多少”,可用“What/How much is+基数词+minus+基数词?";如表达“几减几等于几”,可用“基数词+minus+基数词+is+基数词"。
③ 乘法的表达法
如表达“几乘几是多少",可用“What/How much is基数词+times+基数词?";如表达几乘几等于几”,可用“基数词+times+基数词+is+基数词"。
④ 除法的表达法
如表达“几除以几是多少",可用“What/How much is基数词+divided by+基数词?";如表达几除以几等于几”,可用“基数词+divided by+基数词+is+基数词"。

⒊表时间
① 用数字表达法来表示几点几分时,分钟数在后,并且不可使用quarter,half。
如:8:15 eight fifteen不能说:eight a quarter
10:30 ten thirty 不能说:ten half
② 使用介词past表示“几点过几分”,用to表示“几点差几分”时,分钟数放在介词前。
11:25 twenty-five past eleven(=eleven twenty-five)
6:40 twenty to seven(=six forty)
③past,to 前的分钟应小于三十分钟(如果正好是三十分,应用half)。
如:5:55 five to six=five fifty-five不能说:fifty-five past five)
5:30 half past five=five thirty不能说:thirty past five或five half)
④ 数词用于编号
表示编号,可以用基数词,也可以用序数词,即:事物名词(不加冠词)+基数词;the+序数词十事物名词。
如:Lesson Twelve=the Twelfth Lesson第十二课
Part One→the First Part第一部分
World War I=the First Word war第一次世界大战
如英语编号中数字较长,一般用基数词表示。
如:Room 506第五0六号房间
page 265第二百六十五页
Telephone NO.8297976电话号码8297976
⑤ 表倍数
两倍:twice
两倍以上:基数词+times
如:This classroom is twice as big as that one.
The house is three times bigger than that one

3
数量名词的单复数形式

⒈ hundred,thousand,million的用法
① 当前面有数词以及 many,several 等词修饰时,这三个词用单数形式,后面直接跟复数名词。
如:two hundred students 200名学生
several thousand enemies 几千敌人
② 当这几个词前面没有数词而后面有of时,则一定要用复数形式,表示数百、数千等笼统的数目概念。
如:hundreds of dollars 数百美元
millions of ants数百万蚂蚁

⒉ score(二十),dozen打;十二个)的用法
① 当dozen与基数词或many ,several等连用时,不加“-s”,所修饰的名词前常省去of。但是,在a dozen of these people,two dozen of them等短语中应加of。这是因为习惯上在these,those,us等词前该用dozen of的缘故。
如:two dozen books两打书
two(many several)dozen pencils两(几)打铅笔
some dozen people“若干打的人(许多人)"
② score意为“二十"。
two score of people中应加of,但three score and ten people“70人"中不加of。scores of people 意为“许多人”。上述这两个词的复数形式与of连用时,表示不确切的数量,意为“许多…….”“大量的……"。
如:for dozens of years好几十年以来
scores of years ago许多年前
scores of times许多次





连词是虚词,不能在句中单独担任成分,只起连接作用。按其用法,连词可分为两大类:并列连词和从属连词。

1
并列连词
连接具有并列关系的词、短语或句子。

⒈ 并列关系:and,not only…but also…,both…and…,neither…nor…
如:I used to live in Paris and London.
Both Jane and Jim are interested in fishing.
The weather here is neither too cold nor too hot.
She is not only kind but also honest.

⒉ 转折关系:but,yet,while(然而),when(然而,偏偏)
如:The car is very old but it runs very fast.
The problem was a little hard,yet I was able to work it out.
The winter in Beijing is very cold while that of Kunming is warm.
Why did you borrow the book when you had one?

⒊ 选择关系:or,not…but…,either…or…
如:Would you like to live or would you like to stay?
He is not a teacher but a writer.
You can come either on Saturday or on Sunday.

⒋ 因果关系:for
如:It must have rained last night,for the ground is wet now.
The leaves of the trees are falling. for already autumn.

5. 区别
① and和or
⑴ 并列结构中,or通常用于否定句,and 用于肯定句。
⑵ 但有时and 也可用于否定句。请注意其不同特点:
如:There is no air or water in the moon.
There is no air and no water on the moon.
在否定中并列结构用or连接,但含有两个否定词的句子实际被看作是肯定结构,因此要用and。
判断改错:
(错)We will die without air and water.
(错)We cait live without air or water.
(对)We will die without air or water.
(对)We cant live without air and water.
② 表示选择的并列结构
⑴ or意思为“否则"。
I must work hard,or I will fail in the exam.
⑵ either,or 意思为”或者……或者……注意谓语动词采用就近原则。
Either you or I am right.
③ 表示转折或对比
⑴ but表示转折,while表示对比。
Some people love cats,while others hate them.
⑵ not…but…意思为“不是……而是……"not和but后面的用词要遵循一致原则。
They were not the bones of an animal,but(the bones) of a human being.
③ 表原因关系
⑴ for是并列连词,不能置于含两个并列分句的句子的句首,只能将其放在两个分句中间。
判断改错:
(错)For he is ill,he is absent today.
(对)He is absent today,for he is ill.
④ so,therefore
如:He hurt his leg, so he coudn't play in the game.
注意:a. 两个并列连词不能连用,但therefore,then,yet可以和并列连词连用。
You can watch TV, and /or you can go to bed.
b.although,yet 但although不能与but连用。
⑤ 注意:
not only,but also 关联两个分句时,一个分句因有否定词not而必须倒装。
如:Not only does he like reading stories,but also he can even write some.
neither…nor… 意思为“既不……也不……“谓语动词采用就近原则,与nor后的词保持一致。
⑥ 比较so和such
其规律由so与such的不同词性决定。such 是形容词,修饰名词或名词词组,so是副词,只能修饰形容词或副词。so还可与表示数量的形容词many,few,much,little连用,形成固定搭配。

⑴ so many 已成固定搭配,a lot of虽相当于many,但a lot of为名词性的,只能用such搭配。
⑵ so,that与such,that之间的转换即为so与such之间的转换。

2
从属连词

指在复合句中引导从句的连结词。

⒈ 常见的从属连词有:
引导时间状语从句的:after,before,when,as,while,since,until,till,as soon as
引导原因状语从句的:because,since,as
引导让步状语从句的:although,though,no matter(无论),even if (though)
引导条件状语从句的:if,unless,once,as (so) long as
引导结果状语从句的:so,so that,so…that…,such…that…
引导目的状语从句的:so,so that…,in order that…
引导比较状语从句的:as…as,not so (as),as,than
引导方式状语从句的:as,as if…,as though
引导地点状语从句的:where,wherever
引导名词性从句(主语,宾语、表语或同位语从句)的连词主要有:that,whether,if三个。其中that和whether间或还可以引起同位从句和状语从句。

⒉ 某些用法比较特殊的从属连词用法区别

① 当while,when,as引导时间状语从句时的区别:
⑴ while引导的状语从句中动词必须是延续性。谓语动词多为进行时,或状态动词的一般时。while的这些用法可用when代替,等于“at the time that",“during the time that”
如:Please keep quiet while(when)others are studying.
⑵ when除可指一段时间外,还可用来指一点时间,等于“at the time;when引出的时间状语从句中的谓语动词可以是终止性的,也可以是延续性的。因此主句和从句的谓语可以是一般时,进行时,或完成时。
如:When I went into the lab,the teacher was doing an experiment.(不能用while)
He often makes mistakes when he is speaking English (then 可换成while)
⑶ as 常可与when,while通用,但强调“一边、一边”。
如:As(when/while) I was walking down the street, I noticed a police car in front of number 37.
⑷  when 引导的状语从句中的主语与主句主语一致,主、谓是“主语+系动词”结构时,这时主语和系动词可以省略。
如:When (he was)young. he worked for a rich man.
She'll be here to give you help when (if it is)necessary.
⑸ when有时代替if,引导条件句,意为“如果”“假如”。
如:I'll come when (if)I'm free.
② before作连词一般表示时间,意为“在.…之前”,但有些句子中这样译就显得别扭。
试看以下句子的翻译:He almost knocked me down before he saw.他且乎把我撞倒才看见我;
Before I could get in a word he had measure.没来得及插话,他已经给我量好了尺寸。
③ till,until作为介词式从属连词,只用于时间,引导时间状语短语或状语从句,用于否定句时,结构为not…until(till)主句谓语动词延续与非延续皆可,意为“直到……才……”。用于肯定句时,只与延续性动词连用,表示“到……为止”。
如:They played volleyball until(till)it got dark.
They didn't talk(延续)until(till) the interpreter(译员)came.
He didn't go to bed(非延续)until(till) the his father came back
但是,until可以放在句首,till则不行。
如:Until the last minute of the match we kept on playing.
Not until he finished his work did he go home.(倒装)
④ because,since,as引导原因状语时注意使用上的区别:
⑴ 如果原因构成句子的最主要部分,一般用because 因此because引导的从句往往放在句末。用why提问的句子,一定用because 回答。
如:He had to stay at home yesterday because he was ill.
⑵ 如原因已为人们所知,或不如句子的其他部分重要,就用as,或 since。since比as更正式些。as和since引导的从句一般放在句子的开头。
如:As you are tired,you had better rest/Since everyone is here,now let's begin.
⑤ although和though 引导让步状语从句往往用法一样,但注意以下区别:
⑴ although 用于各种文体,而though则多用于非正式的口语或书面语中。注意由 although,though 引导的从句后,主句不能用but,但可用副词yet,still。
如:Although/Though it rained all the morming, they still went on work或yet they went on working.
⑵ though 常与even连用,even though表示强调,意为“即使”,但不能说even although。
如:Even though he didn't understand a word,I dept smiling.
⑶ though可用作副词,意为“然而”,常用逗号与句子分开。lthough 则不能这样使用,它只作连词。
如:It was a quiet party,I had a good time though.
⑥ once作副词译“曾经”,作为连词译“一旦”,引导条件状语从句。相当于f的加强形式。
如:I don't believe he was once a thief.(once这是副词)
Once Aristotle(亚里士多德) had made up his mind that heavy objects always fell faster than light objects,he taugh as a truth to his students.(once连词)
⑦ umless引导条件状语从句等于if…not…
如:He'll accept the job unless the salary is too low.
⑧ 在用as if引导的方式状语从句及表语从句中,根据情况要使用虚拟语气。
例如:He talks as if he knew all about.但有时也可用直陈语气。
It looks as if it is going to rain.
⑨ whether,if引导从句的用法区别:
⑴ 引导主语从句、表语从句或同位语从句时,用whether,不用if。
如:whether they will go to the Great Wall is not known.
The question is whether we can finish the task on time.
The question whether we will take part in the physics contest has not been decided.
⑵ whether 可接不定式,而if则不可。
如:I haven't decided whether to leave or not.
⑶ whether 可作介词的宾语或置于句首表示强调,而if则不可。
如:Everything depends on whether we have enough money.
Whether he will come,I am not sure.
⑷ whether 和if 均可引导宾语从句,whether引导的宾语从句一般都是肯定句,if引导的宾语从句可以是肯定的,也可以是否定的(此时不能用whether)。
如:Could you tell us whether/if it rains in winter in Australia?
I wonder if it doesn't rain.
⑸ 引导宾语从句的whether 和if常可与or not连用。连用时要注意or not的位置,它一般与whether、if分开使用,有时它可与whether 合起来使用,但不能与if合起来使用。
如:I don't know whether/ if they will come or not.
I don't know whether or not they will come.
⑹ if可用来引导条件状语从句,译“如果”,whether则不行。
例如:If you work hard,you are sure to succeed.
⑩ as作从属连词可引导多种状语从句。
⑴ as 引导时间状语从句,意为“当…时”。
例如:As (he was)a young man,he was a storekeeper and later a postmaster./He sang as he worked.
⑵ as 引导方式状语从句,意为“像……一样”。
例如:We must do as the Party teaches us.
⑶ as引导原因状语从句,意为“由于”。
例如:As you are tired,you had better rest.
⑷ as i引导让步状语从句。意为“虽然”“尽管”。
例如:Child as he is,he can do it well.(=Although he is a child, he can do it well.)另外,as做为关系代词还可以引导定语从句,如:I have the same book as you.
⑪ while 的考察点
⑴ 考查表示时间的用法,其意为“当,的时候”。
如:We must strike while the iron is hot.截们要趁热打铁。
Stand still while I take your photograph.我给你拍照时站着不要动。
Have we got enough books to read while we are on holiday?假期里我们有足够的书看吗?
⑵ 考查表示让步的用法,其意为“尽管”“虽然”。如:while the work was difficult,it was interesting.虽然工作有难度,但很有趣。
while I understand what you say,I can't agree with you.虽然我理解你的意思,但我还是不同意。
⑶ 考查表示对比的用法,其意为“而”“但”。
如:Some people waste food while others haven't enough.一些人糟踏食物而另一些人却食不果腹。
I went swimming while the others played tennis. 我去游泳,而其余的人则去打网球了。
注:这样用时,while引出的句子通常位于末,但有时也可位于句首。
如:while most children learn to read easily,some need extra help. 大多数儿童学会阅读很容易,有一些儿童却需要特别帮助。
while Deauville is a holiday resort,Trouville is more of a working town. 特维尔是个度假胜地,而特鲁维尔更多的却是个工业城市。

考查其省略用法,即主句与从句主语相同,且从句谓语动词含有动词be时,通常可省略从句主语和动词be。
如:while (she was)in prison she wrote her first novel.她在狱中写出了第一部小说。
He had strayed from home while still a boy.他小时候就离开家到处流浪了。
He fell asleep while (he was)doing his homework.他做着做着功课就睡着了。
I was only listening to the radio with half an ear,while I was)preparing some food.我正在做吃的东西,没太留心听收音机。
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